Chlamydophila psittaci assessment in threatened red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) parrots in Paraná, Brazil
The red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) is a parrot endemic to the coastal regions of the southeast Brazil. It is part of the official list of threatened Brazilian species and is considered vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Trapping for the illegal trade and habitat loss are the main threats to this species. Thus, immediate actions in order to avoid declination and further extinction of this parrot are of utmost importance. An essential tool concerning avian conservation is to address disease risk and the role that such processes can play in the threatened wildlife populations. Regarding avian diseases, Chlamydophila psittaci is an important pathogen which can lead to chlamydiosis, a contagious and systemic disease with variable pathogenicity according to the strain, host, and stress factors. C. psittaci has already been detected in Brazilians psittacines free-living populations. In the present study C. psittaci investigation was conducted in captivity and free-living populations of the threatened red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State. This work is part of the actions carried out by red-tailed Amazon Conservation Project in Brazil. For the C. psittaci’s survey, tracheal and cloacal swab samples were collected from 117 red-tailed Amazon free-living nestlings and submitted to polimerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, swabs samples from 13 healthy adults from a local zoo were also evaluated. C. psittaci’s DNA was detected in 1.2% (1/117) of the samples from the free-living red-tailed analyzed; and in 7.6% (1/13) of the samples from the adults held in captivity. Factors related to disease emergence can be complicated and will require ongoing work supported by field epidemiology and laboratory research. Concerning the red-tailed Amazon population approaches related to diseases, further surveillance and conservation of their habitat still need to be conducted in order to assure their long term survival.
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